The RGD-binding Integrins αvβ6 and αvβ8 are Receptors for Mouse Adenovirus-1 and -3 Infection
Mammalian AdVs comprise more than ~350 types including over 100 human adenoviruses (HAdVs) and just three mouse AdV (MAdV). While most HAdVs initiate infection by high affinity/avidity binding of their fiber knob (FK) protein to either coxsackievirus AdV receptor (CAR), CD46 or desmoglein (DSG)-2, MAdV-1 (M1) infection requires arginine-glycine-aspartate (RGD) binding integrins. To identify the receptors mediating MAdV infection we generated five novel reporter viruses for MAdV-1/-2/-3 (M1, M2, M3) transducing permissive murine (m) CMT-93 cells, but not B16 mouse melanoma cells expressing mCAR, human (h) CD46 or hDSG-2. Recombinant M1 or M3 FKs cross-blocked M1 and M3 but not M2 infections. Profiling of murine and human cells expressing RGD-binding integrins suggested that αvβ6 and αvβ8 heterodimers are associated with M1 and M3 infections. Ectopic expression of mβ6 in B16 cells strongly enhanced M1 and M3 binding, infections and progeny productions comparable with mαvβ6-positive CMT-93 cells, whereas mβ8 expressing cells were more permissive to M1 than M3. Anti-integrin antibodies potently blocked M1 and M3 binding and infections of CMT-93 cells and hαvβ8-positive M000216 cells. Soluble integrin αvβ6, and synthetic peptides containing the RGDLXXL sequence derived from FK-M1, FK-M3 and foot and mouth disease virus coat protein potently interfered with M1/M3 infections, in agreement with high affinity interactions of FK-M1/FK-M3 with αvβ6/αvβ8, determined by surface plasmon resonance measurements. Molecular docking simulations of ternary complexes revealed a bent conformation of RGDLXXL-containing FK-M3 peptides on the subunit interface of αvβ6/β8, where the distal leucine residue dips into a hydrophobic pocket of β6/8, the arginine residue ionically engages αv aspartate215, and the aspartate residue coordinates a divalent cation in αvβ6/β8. Together, the RGDLXXL-bearing FKs are part of an essential mechanism for M1/M3 infection engaging murine and human αvβ6/8 integrins, which are also highly conserved in other mammals, and thus may favour cross-species virus transmission.