Effect of Chia seed oil supplemented ice-cream on lipid profile
Chia seeds contain high levels of lipids (34.4%) and are rich in Omega-3, Omega-6 and Omega-9, which constituted 62, 17.4 and 10.5% of the total lipids, respectively. Milk fat is a major source of saturated fatty acids and cholesterol. Milk fat contains more than 70% saturated fatty acids, about 26% monounsaturated fatty acids and less than 4% polyunsaturated fatty acids. According to recommendations provided by American Heart Association (AHA) the intake of saturated fats should be limited from 7-10 % of total daily calories. . As milk fat is a big birthplace for cardiovascular diseases, so a mark able decrease in mortality can be achieved by modifying the fatty acid profile of dairy products. It can be achieved by replacing saturated fatty acid content with unsaturated fatty acids. Production of ice cream with vegetable fat instead of animal fat is a way to produce a nutritionally healthier and low cholesterol product. Because of the highly unsaturated nature of the oil, the seeds probably contain potent lipid antioxidants . Chia seed contains the highest known percentage of α-linolenic acid (ALA) of any plant source. Recent studies shows that chia seed possesses the highest amount of PUFA content, more than 80.5%and the best n-6/n-3 ratio compared with flaxseed and perilla. ALA leads to small but significant increases in EPA and DPA in humans (Nieman et al. 2009).Nutritionally and potentially therapeutic value of a food plays a key role in the development of new value-added products that are manufactured for health-conscious consumers. As omega-3 and omega -6 fatty acids are present in chia seed oil abundantly; it can be incorporated in ice cream as a replacer of cream to have its beneficial effects. It may be helpful in lowering the triglycerides and cholesterol level of blood which in turn results in low blood pressure and heart related diseases (Heuer et al. 2002). Project was designed in such a manner that fat of ice cream was replaced with chia seed oil in different proportions i.e., 25%, 50%,75%,100%. After physico- chemical and sensory evaluation of ice cream ,best treatment was selected and used for efficacy trials. After baseline line study and thorough inclusion criteria 10 individuals were selected and divided into two groups .One group treated as control and the other was given chia seed oil supplemented (50%) ice cream. Significant decrease in cholesterol level was observed in the treated group .18% decrease in cholesterol level was observed at 40th day followed by 8% at 20th day. Similarly 20% decrease in LDL cholesterol with 14% increase in HDL cholesterol. It was recommended that further trials be conducted with sophisticated techniques to completely replace saturated fat in ice cream with unsaturated fats and to study its effect in hyperglycemia and oxidative stress.
Steps to reproduce
Extraction and Purification of chia seed oil:In order to extract oil from chia seeds, after size reduction oil was extracted and then passed to a steamer where temperature (more than 100 ̊C) was applied in combination with vacuum in order to deodorize crude chia seed oil. After deodorization crude oil was passed through different steel filters to make it refine. Finally oil was passed through a cooling unit to lower down its temperature for further processing. Analysis of chia seeds oil.Refined and deodorized chia seed oil was analyzed for free fatty acids, iodine value, per-oxidevalue, color, melting point and moisture according to the method of (AOAC, 2006).Five different batches of ice cream were prepared according to formulation given by Potter and Hotchkiss. In formulation of all treatments the only difference was the type and percentage of fat added. Control group was prepared according to standard formulation. While 25%, 50%, 75% and 100 % milk fat was replaced with chia seed oil in T1, T2 and T3 and T 4 respectively. All the ingredients were mixed. Pasteurization was done .After that mixture was homogenized in a clean and sanitized double stage homogenizer @ 100 kg/cm2 and 35 kg/cm2 in the first and second stage respectively.The pasteurized mix was transferred into refrigerator/freezer to drop temperature <10 °C. Then ageing was done for 4-6 hours at 4 °C. After ageing vanilla flavor was added in ice cream mix.Analysis of ice-cream: pH , acidity , fat, protein , total solids , ash , whipping ability , melting test , overrun and sensory evaluation was carried out according to prescribed standard procedures by AOAC(2006).Chia seed oil supplemented ice cream was subjected to sensory evaluation for color, flavor and overall acceptability by a trained panel of 10 judges as described by (Meilgard et al. 2007). The testing was also carried out at 10, 20 and 30 days of storage interval. All evaluations were carried out at room temperature on the same day in well illuminated laboratory.Cholesterol in serum samples was measured by liquid cholesterol CHOD-PAP as described by(Stockbridge et al. 1989). Serum HDL was determined by HDL cholesterol precipitant method asdescribed by (Assmann 1979). LDL in all the serum samples was estimated by using theprocedure outlined by (Mc Namara et al. 1990). Statistical Analysis:The design of study was completely randomized (CRD). Comparability of the treatment and control groups at baseline was determined by using analysis of variance with repeated measures. (Steel et al. 1997). The means were compared for significant difference using Duncan’s Multiple Ranges Test (Duncan 1955) The collected data of physico -chemical analysis and sensory evaluation was analyzed by using t-test and (ANOVA)analysis of variance technique under CRD for product development..Costat-2003 version 6.303 software was used for all statistical analyses.