Composite adverse outcomes in primary PPH
Primary postpartum haemorrhage continues to cause considerable global maternal morbidity and mortality. The independent variables included socio-demographic factors, mode of delivery, fetal characteristics, blood loss, laboratory tests, causes of PPH and the management of PPH. The main outcome of interest for the study was the composite adverse outcome which included maternal death or serious morbidity (either of hypovolaemic shock or haemoglobin <4g/dL or massive blood transfusion >4 units or hysterectomy or admission to ICU or coagulopathy or major organ dysfunction). Data were cleaned, coded and entered into a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet, then exported to SPSS Version 20 (IBM, Armonk, NY, USA) for analysis. Descriptive statistical analyses were performed and presented as frequencies and percentages for categorical variables. Bivariate correlations of association between main independent variables and the outcome measures were performed using Pearson 2-tailed chi-square test. A p value of <0.05 was considered to be statistically significant, and these were considered for the univariate logistic regression. Those variables that had a p<0.2 from the univariate logistic regression analyses were considered for multivariable logistic regression. The association between independent variables and the dependent variable was assessed using odds ratio with 95% confidence intervals, to identify independent risk factors for composite adverse outcomes in PPH, holding other variables constant and adjusting for co-variates. The Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit was used to check if the model fitted well. A p< 0.05 was taken as statistically significant. 386 cases of PPH were recorded during the period 1 July 2016 to 30 October 2019. The independent risk factors for composite adverse outcomes in postpartum haemorrhage were place of dwelling (AOR 4.57, 95% CI 1.87-11.12, p=0.01), prior history of a Caesarean section (AOR 2.57, 95% CI 1.10-6.00, p=0.03), APH (AOR 5.45, 95% CI 2.23-13.27, p<0.0001), antenatal haemoglobin level (AOR 19.64, 95% CI 1.44-268.50, p=0.03), and delivery by Caesarean section (AOR 10.21, 95% CI 4.39-23.74, p<0.0001). Blood loss was also an independent risk factor for composite adverse outcomes in postpartum haemorrhage with the following blood loss; 1001-1500ml (AOR 9.94, 95% CI 3.68-26.88, p<0.0001), 500-1000ml (AOR 41.27, 95% CI 11.32-150.54, p<0.0001), and 2001ml (AOR 164.77, 95% CI 31.06-874.25, p<0.0001).