Additional low-pressure pulmonary recruitment for reducing post-laparoscopic shoulder pain in gynecologic laparoscopy: a randomized controlled trial
The shoulder pain was evaluated using numerical rating scale (NRS) at 24 and 48 hours after the operation. The mean + SD of shoulder pain at 24 hours after the operation of intervention and control groups were 2.10 + 2.27 and 1.45 + 1.73 points, respectively. The shoulder pain at 48 hours after the operation of intervention and control groups were 1.15 + 1.46 and 0.85 + 1.73 points, respectively. There were no statistical differences in the mean difference between the two groups at 24 and 48 hours after operation (p = 0.49, 95%CI -0.61-1.91 and p = 1.00, 95%CI -0.96-1.56, respectively). There were also no statistical differences in the mean difference of incisional pain at 24 and 48 hours after operation between the two groups (p = 0.69, 95%CI -0.63-1.53 and p = 1.00, 95%CI -0.83-1.33, respectively). No statistical differences in additional analgesic medication used such as intravenous morphine or oral acetaminophen in both groups.