Spanish Adaptation of the Awareness, Courage, and Responsiveness Scale

Published: 17 June 2021| Version 2 | DOI: 10.17632/wvk6z7jwsp.2
, Rafael Martínez Cervantes


The Awareness, Courage, and Responsiveness Scale (ACRS) is the first measure created to assess a contextual-behavioral model of Intimacy, rooting on the Functional Analytic Psychotherapy. The objectives of this study were to adapt to Spanish the ACRS and to analyze its psychometric properties in non-clinical samples from Spain. The scale adaptation was carried out using three independent forward and backward translations. Data was collected from two sub-samples of participants: college students (n = 254) and health professionals (n = 120). A part of the students (n = 93) responded to the ACRS in a reevaluation phase to assess its stability over time. Reliability was assessed with Cronbach’s alphas, Intraclass Correlation Coefficients, and Pearson’s correlations. Construct dimensional structure was tested with Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA). Convergent validity was evaluated by Pearson’s correlations between ACRS and other theoretically related constructs. Results for internal consistency, time stability, and convergent validity were adequate. With some re-specifications, the original five-factor hierarchical model, with Self-awareness, Others-awareness, Courage, and Responsiveness as lower-order factors, and Intimacy as a higher-order factor, seems valid for Spain’s population. Some limitations, like error correlations, low item loadings, and weaker results for the Awareness scales time consistency, are discussed.



Universidad de Sevilla


Item Analysis, Confirmatory Factor Analysis