A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF MORPHOLOGY AND SYNTAX IN ENGLISH AND BANGLA
Abastract: The process of acquiring one's first language (L1) is a natural phenomenon in which individuals unintentionally acquire their native tongue (L1). In contrast to first language acquisition (L1), the acquisition of a second or foreign language (L2) is a cognitively driven process in which learners actively engage in purposeful efforts to acquire the language. Therefore, second language (L2) learners have several problems in second language acquisition (SLA), such as interference from their mother tongue or first language (L1), analysis of errors, development of an interlanguage or learner's language, consideration of learners' age, motivation, provision of positive feedback, and other related factors. This research examines the morphological and syntactical similarities and differences between English and Bangla, focusing on synchronic, diachronic, and grammatical viewpoints. Hence, this research contributes to the improvement of second language (L2) learners' understanding of English or Bangla, as well as their ability to overcome problems in second language acquisition (SLA).
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II. LOGIC, LOGICIAN, LOGICAL, ILLOGICAL, ILLOGICALITY: In addition, there are two distinct types of morphological links seen among words, and linguists use specialised terminology to delineate these interactions. Inflection, also known as inflectional morphology, refers to the connection that occurs between the many word forms of a lexeme. On the other hand, another linguistic phenomenon that may be seen is derivation, specifically derivational morphology. This kind of connection occurs between lexemes belonging to the same word family. Morphologists use the related verbs for the purpose of inflection and derivation, therefore discerning links between words. Therefore, it may be said that the lexeme LIVE undergoes inflection for case and number, whereas the lexeme READER is generated from the lexeme READ. The term "derive lexeme" is also often known as a derivative. It is often seen that morphologically complicated words exhibit membership in many word families concurrently. As an example, the lexeme "FIREWOOD" is a member of both the fire-related lexical family and the wood-related lexical family. The term used to describe this kind of interaction is compounding, and lexemes such as firewood are referred to as compound lexemes. Accordingly, Haspelmath posits the following categorizations of morphology (Figure 01): Figure 01: Subdivisions of Morphology 1.1 General Description on Syntax: Syntax, a field of study within linguistics, focuses on analysing the internal organisation of phrases and sentences. This aspect of language, also referred to as grammar, is widely recognised as a fundamental characteristic of human communication. In contrast to morphology, the field of syntax focuses on the analysis of structure at the level of phrases or sentences. According to Haspelmath's (2002) definition, syntax refers to the process of constructing sentences, including the organisation of words into phrases and sentences (p. 1). According to Haspelmath, there are instances when individuals use the word "grammar" interchangeably with "syntax." However, it is often observed among linguists that the prevailing approach involves including all the organising principles of a language inside its grammar. This encompasses many aspects such as the sound system, word forms, contextual language adjustments, and more. Syntax, while significant, is only a component of this comprehensive grammar. The word "syntax" is frequently used to refer to the scholarly study of the syntactic characteristics of languages. In this context, syntax is used similarly to how stylistics is utilised to denote the examination of literary style. The syntactic features of a language provide us with the rules and principles governing the combination of meaningful sentences. Syntax is not only a sequence of words; instead, it is the syntactic principles that govern the arrangement and organisation of those words. For instance, the phrase 'Beat the cat, the dong' ......contd.