Changes in physicochemical characteristics along the Shatt al-Arab River The objectives of the present study are to assess the water quality of Shatt al-Arab River and to explain the impact of natural factors such as the incursion of the extent of the salt tongue from the Arabian Gulf and climate changes in addition to the construction of dams in the upper rivers, the shortage of water supply, the increase of pollutants and their negative impact on agricultural and other vital environmental activities in Basra province.
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Field sampling and analytical procedures Water samples were collected from selected twelve stations along the Shatt Al-Arab River monthly. Samples were preserved and analyzed according to the APHA (2005). Physical and chemical parameters including water temperature (WT), air temperature (AT), electrical conductivity (EC), and pH were measured using the Lovibond Multimeter SensoDirect 150. Turbidity was determined using a Turbi Direct meter. Light Penetration (Secchi disc) and depth were also measured, and the results were expressed in centimeters. The total suspended solids (TSS) amount, Calcium and Magnesium, and Potassium ion was calculated according to the APHA (2005) method. Device model EXTECH was used to measure Dissolved oxygen (DO) in water Total Alkalinity and Total Hardness were measured using the titration method, according to Lind (1979). Reactive Nitrates, Ammonium Ion, and reactive phosphate were estimated for water samples as described in APHA (2005).