Testing the Environmental Kuznets Curve Hypothesis: The Dynamic Impact of Nuclear Energy on Environmental Sustainability in the context of Economic Globalization
In the context of global energy conservation and emission reduction, emerging markets and developing countries, especially the BRICS countries (Brazil, China, India, Russia, South Africa) are faced with both achieving sustainable economic and environmental development and improving energy use efficiency to facilitate the implementation of carbon reduction strategies. After the outbreak of COVID-19 pandemic, the BRICS countries have maintained good cooperation momentum in the economic, trade and energy sectors, making important contributions to promoting global environmental governance and fostering global economic recovery and high-quality sustainable development. As representatives of emerging markets and developing countries, BRICS countries effectively play the role of “stabilizer” and “gas pedal” of development in the global economy and carbon peaking and carbon neutrality strategy. Therefore, this study examines the impact of nuclear energy consumption on environmental sustainability in the context of economic globalization using annual data for the BRICS countries for the period 1985-2020. These data include GDP per capita in constant 2010 dollars (GDP), carbon dioxide emissions per capita in metric tons (CO2), nuclear energy consumption as a percentage of primary energy (NE), renewable energy consumption as a percentage of primary energy (RE), population per square kilometer of land area (POP), urban population as a percentage of total population (URB), and the KOF Switzerland The Globalization Index (EGL) developed by the Economic Society of Switzerland. The data was obtained from the World Bank, Global Carbon Project, BP Statistical Review of World Energy (2021), International Energy Agency (IEA) and KOF Index.