BioPsychoNutritional Intervention in Cancer Patients
This data set has originated from a multi-professional integrated approach for the recognition and management of the nutritional and psychological needs of cancer patients. In particular, patients undertake a multi-professional, multistep process that includes the collection of both personal and clinical data, the evaluation of anthropometric measures, nutritional status and psychometric indices, and an ensuing personalized nutritional prescription along with psychological support, ultimately leading to combining nutritional and psychological interventions, to control their adherence to the nutritional program, and to consolidate motivation to change. Overall, 120 patients were recruited for the study. The majority (84.2%) were females. Breast cancer was by far the most frequent malignancy (52.5%), followed by colorectal (17.5%), pancreatic (9.2%), ovarian (9.2%), and lung (5.0%) cancer. Results of nutritional and psychological screening at baseline indicate that only 35% of patients had a normal BMI, whilst a relatively high proportion (nearly 32%) was overweight or obese (25%). The INRAN and MEDI-LITE questionnaires, respectively used to assess the eating habits and adherence to the Mediterranean diet, revealed a mixed prevalence of cereals/cereal-based, fresh/processed meat, and fish or fishery food, with a medium-low adherence to the Mediterranean diet in nearly 38% of patients. The BUT, HADS, and SF-36 tests, used to assess psychological disturbances, showed that 37.5% of patients had disorders of body image, 29.2% abnormal anxiety, and 20.0% a depression state, while no significant association was observed between the SF-36 PCS and MCS and patients’ characteristics.
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Personal and anamnestic data have been collected through a specifically designed data sheet; socio-demographic information, lifestyle, and eating habits were evaluated through an INRAN (Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca per gli Alimenti e la Nutrizione), questionnaire, developed in the frame of the Italian National Food Consumption Survey INRAN-SCAI 2005–06,20 and the adherence to a Mediterranean dietary model assessed through a modification of the MEDI-LITE scoring system.21 Anthropometric indices (Body Mass Index, BMI; Waist-to-Hip Ratio, WHR) were calculated through measurement of weight, height, waistline, and hipline. Psychometric tests administered included the Body Uneasiness Test (BUT), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), and the Short Form Health Survey 36 (SF-36). Data related to patient characteristics and study variables have been expressed using frequency (%) and mean ±standard deviation or median and interquartile ranges. In order to determine the association between the results of the food questionnaires and psychometric tests and the general characteristics of patients at the baseline, the statistical analysis has been conducted using the chi-squared test (including the Cramer's V test) and the permutation test by gender and residence, by simulating 100,000 samples extracted with the Monte Carlo method, for the approximation of the exact conditional distribution. In addition, the Kruskal-Wallis test (one-way non-parametric ANOVA) will be used for the analysis of age groups, educational level, BMI classes, and types of cancer. Finally, the Kendall rank correlation test will be used to evaluate the correlation between PCS and MCS and the other variables under study. Statistical analysis was performed using the STATA software v. 13 (StataCorp LLC, College Station, TX, USA) and an alpha level of 0.05 was used for all tests.