FNDC5/irisin Mediates the Protective Actions of Innovative Theta-shaking Exercise on Mouse Memory
T-Maze Test The T-maze test was analyzed using a chi-square test. The shaking group showed better accuracy and faster decision-making at 20 weeks. However, only the 30-week shaking group had a slight advantage (p=0.053). Passive Avoidance Task During memory acquisition, both groups behaved similarly. Memory regeneration showed improvement, with shaking group mice being less hesitant, indicating better memory retention. At 20 and 30 weeks, both groups improved memory, with the shaking group showing longer latency than the control. Histomorphology Effects FNDC5-Positive Reaction: FNDC5 was more pronounced in certain brain regions of the shaking group, including distal CA1, subiculum, DR MPFC, and VR MPFC. Abnormal Neurons: Shaking exercise resulted in fewer abnormal neurons in regions like upstream DG, proximal CA3, distal CA1, and DR MPFC. Number of Neurons: The subiculum subregion had more neurons in the shaking group. ELISA Effects Irisin: Shaking group had higher irisin levels in the wide-area brain and hippocampus. NGF Levels: Shaking group had higher NGF levels. NT4/5: No significant differences in NT4/5 levels between groups.
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Behavioral Tests T-Maze Test: Mice of different ages underwent the T-maze test to assess short-term memory. No food deprivation or pretraining was done. Mice chose goal arms in the maze, receiving scores for alternating choices. Latency in decision-making was noted. Passive Avoidance Task: This task involved placing mice in a lit area. They learned to avoid entering a dark compartment after receiving a mild shock. Latency before entering the dark compartment was measured on different days. Tissue Preparation After behavior tests, mice underwent thoracotomy, followed by brain removal. Tissues for analysis were either stored at -80°C or fixed for histology. Immunohistochemistry Brain sections were obtained and stained using FNDC5 antibody. Different brain regions were analyzed, and neuron counts and FNDC5 expression were measured using ImageJ software. ELISA Brain tissues were lysed, and protein levels of irisin, NGF, and NT4/5 were measured using ELISA kits. Statistical Analysis Various tests, including chi-square, ANOVA, t-tests, and Mann-Whitney U tests, were used for statistical analysis. Data were presented as means ± SEM. SPSS software was employed for analyses.
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science