An Urban Based Epidemiological Study of Sarcopenia, Dynapenia and Frailty in Community Dwelling Individuals of Belagavi City, India
Objectives: Aging is associated with progressive loss of skeletal muscle mass (sarcopenia) and strength (dynapenia) and frailty that can lead to mobility issues, falls/fractures, impaired functional abilities. Meager epidemiological data exist on occurrence of these conditions in Indian based regions. Hence, aim of the study was to create epidemiological data about sarcopenia, dynapenia and frailty in a cross-section of community dwelling individuals in Belagavi city of India. Methods: A cross section of individuals above 40years with and without comorbidities were included in the study. They were screened for skeletal muscle mass expressed as appendicular skeletal muscle index using body composition analyzer, dominant hand grip strength with Jamar hand dynamometer and physical performance by gait speed using 4-metre walk test. The cut-offs for measurements for diagnosis was as per Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia. Results: A total of 217 men and 283 women were enrolled for the study. The results depicted higher prevalence after age of 60years for Sarcopenia [89.89%], dynapenia [63.37%] and frailty [11.15%] when compared to those of 40-50years [46.47%, 61.18% and 0% respectively]. Irrespective of age, males [57.14%] were more sarcopenic than females [42.76%]. Men and women were equal with respect to dynapenia across all age groups. Frailty issues started only at 7th decade with females being frailer than males. Conclusions: With advanced age, there is higher prevalence of sarcopenia, dynapenia and frailty. Men were more sarcopenic than females. Both genders were equally dynapenic across age classes with women being frailer than males after 70+ years of age.