Short-term Assessment of Biochemical Profiles of Selected Aquatic Macrophytes in relation to Surface Water Quality
For the present study, two urban ponds were selected in Karamsad Town, Anand District, Gujarat State, India, during January to April, 2014. The study highlights the surface water quality and biochemical profile of selected aquatic macrophytes Eichhornia crassipes (EC), Ipomea carnea (IC) and Polygonum glabrum (PG). To determine the surface water quality, parameters such as pH, Dissolved Oxygen (DO), Total Solids (TS), Total Suspended Solids (TSS), Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), Free CO2, Phenolphthalein Alkalinity (PA), Total Alkalinity (TA), Carbonates, Bicarbonates, Total Hardness (TH), Calcium (Ca), Magnesium (Mg), Chloride, Salinity, Sulphate, Phosphate, Nitrate, Chromium (Cr) and Ferrous (Fe). The contents of DO, TS, TSS, TDS, TA, Bicarbonates, Ca, Chloride, Salinity, Sulphate, Nitrate, Cr and Fe were found higher in Pond 1 (G1), while rest of the parameters showed more contents in Pond 2 (G2). The biochemical profile of intact plant, root, stem, and leaf was drawn by analyzing the parameters like Total Carbohydrates (TC), Phenols, Amino Acids (AA), and Proteins. In case of intact plant, TC and AA were found more in PG, Phenols in EC, and Proteins in IC. Correlation Coefficient Matrix (r) was also derived between surface water quality and biochemical compounds. In EC, TC showed positive correlation with Salinity and Phenols, AA and Proteins with Sulphate. In IC, TC and Phenols were positively correlated with pH, AA with Phosphate, and Proteins with Salinity. In PG, TC exhibited positive correlation with Ca, Phenols with Fe, and AA and Phenols with DO. The findings of the present study revealed that Pond 1 (G1) was found more polluted compared to Pond 2 (G2) (which is remotely located from town) due to its close vicinity to human settlement and direct or indirect anthropogenic interventions such as garbage, dumping, solid waste piles, etc. From the above findings, it is also clear that most of the physico-chemical parameters of surface water quality were found to be affected by biochemical compounds of selected aquatic macrophytes and vice-versa. Thus, as a management perspective it is suggested to install water purification plant with intended eradication of obnoxious aquatic weeds from the hydrological regime along with Eichhornia crassipes to conserve the prevailing biodiversity of the studied palustrine habitats for better sustenance of abiotic as well as biotic elements present therein. Focusing on the ‘reuse approach’, Eichhornia crassipes can also be reused by preparing the organic manure or biofertilizer using standard scientific methods and techniques, which can be embarked as a low-cost effective solution in improving the yield of traditional crops in proximate agricultural ecosystems of the study area.