Non-Pharmacological Breathlessness Management in Older Patients: A Review Study
This is a review study about non-pharmacological treatments of breathlessness or shortness of breath management in older patients. Breathlessness is a multifactorial problem, and thus, interventions in the specific mechanisms can relieve it. Besides the effect of the aging process, many conditions can cause breathlessness such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, lung cancer, cardiac failure, end-stage renal disease, and advanced neurological disease. There is no single intervention to relieve breathlessness, particularly chronic refractory breathlessness. This study identified that non-pharmacological treatments such as transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation over acupoints, cognitive behavior therapy, inspiratory muscle training, and yoga were commonly used in breathlessness management and have shown potential benefits among older patient with breathlessness.