Bacteroidetes bacteria, important players in the marine sponge larval development process
Thirteen bacterial species (12 genera within 3 classes) associated with the sponge Tedania sp. revealed a common ability to significantly promote sponge larval settlement at rates 33.33–53.33% higher than controls (p < 0.05). These Bacteroidetes species evolved three effective strategies: (i) Two strains formed biofilms enhancing the settlement rate to 43.3–56.67% within three days. (ii) Five strains secreted hydrosoluble molecules improving larval settlement, reaching 59.17%. (iii) Nearly half of the species produced extracellular vesicles (EVs) that significantly improved settlement by up to 86.67% (p < 0.05).