The Perceived Negative Impact of the Coronavirus (PNIC) scale validation in seven countries: Germany, Malaysia, Poland, Russia, Slovenia, Turkey, and Ukraine
The five-item brief Perceived Negative Impact of Coronavirus (PNIC) scale was developed and validated in the study. The data were collected between mid-October and December 2020. The "DataBase_PL" shows the PNIC scale as well as some well-being indices (life satisfaction, physical health, depression, anxiety, perceived stress, and PTSD related to the COVID-19 pandemic) among 1228 university students from Poland (Sample 1 for EFA and and Sample 2 for CFA). The "DataBase_International" include the PNIC in an international sample of 2025 university students from seven countries: Germany, Malaysia, Poland, Russia, Slovenia, Turkey, and Ukraine (Sample 3). The EFA and CFA were conducted to explore a factor structure. The PNIC showed a two-factor solution: F1 = socio-economic status; and F2 = social relationships.The PNIC scale was found as a valid instrument to assess the perceived negative impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on university students’ daily life and can be useful in various countries.