Online Supplementary - CSN1S1 and CSN3 gene polymorphisms in female Murrah buffaloes
This research communication describes the occurrence of polymorphisms in the CSN1S1 and CSN3 genes in female Murrah buffaloes. The four casein genes, CSN1S1, CSN1S2, CSN2, and CSN3 are responsible for encoding the four fractions of the casein protein. The CSN1S1 and CSN3 genes were analyzed in 41 lactating Murrah buffaloes using nucleotide sequencing. An SNP was found in the amplified fragment of the CSN1S1 gene, located in nucleotide number 2,123 of the promoter region in position nt-258 (A/G). As for the CSN3 gene, two SNPs at nt-98 and nt-102 of exon number 4 were identified in codons 33 (ACC/ATC) and 34 (ACC/ACT) of the analyzed fragment. By investigating the polymorphisms of candidate genes in dairy buffalo important as-sociations between genetic variants and the desired characteristics of milk and its derivatives can be established, enabling genetic selection to be assisted by molecular markers.