Oil palm residue lignocellulose treated with Bacillus cereus on handsheet production
Biodelignification treatment with Bacillus cereus isolated from termite gut is used to create handsheet from oil palm residue (oil palm leaf, oil palm trunk, and empty fruit bunch) from Coptotermus curvignathus. The biodelignification process was carried out using non-optimized condition of submerged fermentation (SmF). The lignocellulose chemical composition was obtained through technical association pulp and paper industry TAPPI T 222 om-02 testing on lignin content reduction determination, holocellulose and hemicellulose content determination (Kurscher-Hoffner method) to determine the physical and mechanical strength of the handsheet. Brightness, opacity, contrast ratio, din transparency, thickness, bursting, and tearing indexes are among the data gathered for handsheet characterization. Using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and ImageJ software, handsheet surface morphology was observed on the ratio of gaps discrepancies between fiber bonding. The untreated and treated substrates' supplement raw data results of lignocellulose chemical composition and handsheet characterization analysis are viewed. The data were analyzed using ANOVA with a p-value of less than 0.05 indicating that the findings are significant. The results are used for better improvement and more analysis on the optimization level.
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Lignocellulose compositions were recorded using an analytical balance (AUX120, SHIMADZU, Co., Japan). The mechanical tests conducted are, thickness of sheet using a micrometre (Lorentzen & Weltre, Sweden) (TAPPI Standard T 411 om-10), grammage (TAPPI Standard T220 sp-01), tensile index analysed using horizontal tensile tester (BUCHEL, Netherlands) (TAPPI Standard T404 cm-02), tear strength using tearing resistance tester (Lorentzen & Weltre, Sweden) (TAPPI Standard T414 om-98) and bursting of pulp using the bursting tester (FRANK Prufgerate GmbH, Austria) (TAPPI Standard T 403 om-08). Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) micrographs captured using number series SU1510 (FUSIO Hitachi, Japan) coated with thin layer of gold using a sputter-coated (Quorum Q150R S, UK). Raw data, statistical analysis (Microsoft excel, ANOVA), and images (Samsung J7pro. Korea).