Impact of Shoaling Ocean Surface Waves on Wind Stress and Drag Coefficient in Coastal Waters: Part II Idealized Tropical Cyclones
These are wind stress and drag coefficient data from a series of idealized numerical experiments that are used to investigate the impact of shoaling ocean waves on the wind stress and drag coefficient in coastal waters under tropical cyclone conditions. The data were generated using the two diagnostic flux calculation methods implemented in the WAVEWATCH III wave model (v5.16) (FLD1/2). In idealized tropical cyclone conditions, our results show that the sea-state dependence of the drag coefficient (Cd) is significantly increased in shallow water at a given wind speed. Compared to its deep-water value, Cd is enhanced in the right (due to shoaling fetch-dependent wind waves) and in the left (due to shoaling opposing-wind swells) TC quadrants. However, Cd is reduced in the front/rear quadrants due to weaker wind seas. The misalignment between the wind stress and wind speed directions is also enhanced in shallow water by the shoaling of swells. In general, the shoaling wave effects on the wind stress and drag coefficient are much stronger on steeper bottom slopes and in faster-moving storms.