Morphological and anatomical characteristics of leaves and cones in Juniperus seravschanica Kom.: Studies of polyphenolic parenchyma cells, secretory tissues, sclereids and tracheids

Published: 6 February 2023| Version 1 | DOI: 10.17632/yp4zxszkgx.1
, Farzad Ganjalikhani Hakemi,


Conifers are long-lived species that cope with multiple abiotic and biotic stresses. Juniperus seravschanica Kom. is an important tree distributed in southeastern Iran. Morphological and anatomical traits of different leaves (cotyledonary, needle like and scaly leaves) and cones (male and female) were studied and compared. The species is frost and drought tolerant and grows at altitudes 2200-3800m on normal, chalky, calcareous, rocky and mountainous outcrops together with other species or as pure patches. The morphological studies showed that seedlings and young plants leaves were small and needle-like while main leaves of adult plants were scale-like, appressed and overlapping; there was a conspicuous resin gland in outer surface of scaly leaves secreting a sticky resinous substance that dries into a white material, particularly in damaged leaves. Anatomical studies showed that epidermis was thick with thicker outer walls and sunken stomata; hypodermis showed 1-3 layers of lignified cells with very thick walls and narrow lumen. The palisade parenchyma was observed in both sides. Sclereids, phenolic- and starchy cells were observed in leaves particularly scaly leaves. Male cones were small size with overlapping and decussate scales in which resin glands and phenolic cells were also observed. Similarly, female cones had overlapping and decussate scales that survive 1-3 years and become fleshy, berry-like and bluish during development. They revealed the presence of numerous resin glands, thick epidermis, phenolic and sclereid cells as well. Tracheids were narrow in leaves and cones. These characteristics help the species to survive in different stressful conditions.



Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman


Plant Morphology, Conifer, Plant Anatomy


This work was supported by Research and Technology Institute of Plant Production and Department of Biology, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Iran.