Design of a Novel Evidence-Based High School Melanoma Prevention Curriculum and Systematic Review of the Literature
Background: Incorporation of melanoma prevention behaviors into daily lifestyles is difficult. Data suggest that high school educational programs on skin cancer prevention can be successful and should incorporate evidence-based teaching and learning strategies to achieve greatest impact. Objective: To describe evidence-based educational practices for a high-school melanoma curriculum through a comprehensive review of the literature and utilize data to design a high-school curriculum. Methods: Ovid MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, and PyscINFO were searched in June 2020 for all original articles published between June 18, 1946 and June 17, 2020. All studies that used an educational curriculum to promote sun safety, skin exams, and early detection to high school students were included. Results: A total of 25 studies with 22,683 adolescent participants were analyzed. Important outcomes included changes in knowledge, behavior, attitudes, confidence, and early detection of skin cancer and sun safety. Sixteen studies showed a significant increase in knowledge, twenty-one studies showed changes in behavior and fifteen studies showed significant changes in attitudes. Only one study demonstrated an improvement in confidence and another in early detection. Conclusions: Incorporating fun and engaging active learning strategies are key aspects of creating an effective curriculum aimed at the prevention and early detection of melanoma.