Data for: Cannabinoid synthases and osmoprotective metabolites accumulate in the exudates of Cannabis sativa L. glandular trichomes
Cannabinoids are terpenophenolic compounds produced by Cannabis sativa L., which accumulate in storage cavities of glandular trichomes as a part of the exudates. We investigated if tetrahydrocannabinolic acid synthase and cannabidiolic acid synthase, which are involved in the last step of cannabinoid biosynthesis, are also secreted into Cannabis trichome exudates. The exudates were collected by microsuction from storage cavities of Cannabis glandular trichomes and were subjected for proteomic and metabolomic analyses. The catalytic activity of the exudates was documented by cannabigerolic acid biotransformation studies under hydrophobic conditions. Electrophoretic separations revealed protein bands at ~65 kDa, which were further identified as tetrahydrocannabinolic acid synthase and cannabidiolic acid synthase. The accumulation of the enzymes in trichome exudates increased substantially during the flowering period in the drug-type Cannabis plants. The content of cannabinoids increased significantly after incubating hexane-diluted trichome exudates with cannabigerolic acid. In this study, we showed that Cannabis glandular trichomes secrete and accumulate cannabinoid synthases in storage cavities, and are able to convert cannabigerolic acid under hydrophobic trichome-mimicking conditions. Metabolite profiling of the exudates revealed compounds with hydrophilic, osmoprotective and amphiphilic properties, which may play a role in providing a necessary aqueous microenvironment, which enables enzyme solubility and biocatalysis under hydrophobic conditions of glandular trichomes.