Effector-mediated membrane disruption controls cell death in CBASS antiphage defense. Duncan-Lowey et al.
Duncan-Lowey et al. show that CBASS antiphage defense uses transmembrane effectors to induce cell death through membrane disruption and protect bacteria from phage infection. They report the structure of one family of transmembrane effectors, Cap15, that use a minimal β-barrel to bind activating cyclic dinucleotide signals.