The nonlinear relationship between the intensity of grandparenting and psychological distress

Published: 5 June 2024| Version 1 | DOI: 10.17632/zm2zjh68y9.1
Yingwu Li


We systematically reviewed 2,213 records from two Chinese and three English databases, ultimately including 21 studies. Psychological distress among primary caregivers (PC), supplementary caregivers (SC), and non-caregivers (NC) was compared using standardized mean deviations (SMD), with negative values indicating beneficial effects.


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On November 2, 2022, searches were conducted in two Chinese databases (Wanfang database and China National Knowledge Infrastructure Database), and three English-language databases (Web of Science, EBSCO, and PubMed). Relevant articles’ reference lists were also included to gather more studies. The search used three groups of terms based on previous review and meta-analysis studies: (grandparent OR grandparents OR grandparenting OR grandmother OR grandfather OR intergeneration* OR multigeneration* OR three-generation* OR skipped generation*) AND (mental health OR psychological health OR depress* OR anxiety OR distress) AND (rearing OR raising OR caring OR caregiver* OR grandchild* OR childcare OR custodial). A total of 2213 articles were retrieved, and two independent reviewers screened the full text. Any discrepancies in the screening were resolved through discussion or the decision of a third investigator.


Renmin University of China




Renmin University of China

The People’s Psychology Innovation Research Fund of the Department of Psychology at Renmin University of China (No. RXB007).