Retrospective study of peripheral arterial disease and ankle brachial index in femoro - popliteal segment visual assessment and analysis.
Bacground: Peripheral arterial disease is the most common disease of arterial vessels in this anatomical region. Symptoms may range from intermittent claudication to pain even at rest. The claudication is expressed by the occurrence of pain in the affected limb in physical effort and resolves at rest. Pain, usually appears distally from the narrow or clogged area of the vessel. When atherosclerotic changes affect the superficial femoral artery and/or popliteal artery, pain commonly occurs in the calf region of the affected limb. Aim: Analysis of frequency and type of vessel changes in femoro - popliteal anatomical region and correlations of the disease with ankle brachial index. Patients and methods: The study includes 400 patients (250 men and 150 women aged between 60 and 75. All patients under investigation exhibit one or more symptoms of PAD and their complaints date for at least 2 years. All CT studies included in the study are performed on 256 slice CT with automatic injection system. Standard angiographic system is used for performing digital subtraction angiograms in the study. Standard straight and curved, diagnostic catheters and guides were used, according to the desired access and anatomical features of the patient. Angiographic injection system. The mean age of patients was 65.21. Standard deviation of 4.1, corrected standard error 0.059. Median = 65. According to the WHO, the patients collected in this study fall into the age of "elderly people". Results: 71% of surveyed patients have thrombotic changes in the femoral anatomic segment. Engagement of the superficial femoral artery is visualized in about 80% of cases with this anatomical localization. Followed by popliteal artery 68% and the deep femoral artery 32%. 13% of those surveyed for PAD have lesions type D, proven by CT and DSA in femoro- popliteal segment. 20.5% have C-type lesions in the anatomic region. Type B lesions are observed in 22% of patients suffering from PAD. 21% of patients have Type A lesions. Inversion of the values of unilateral or bilateral involvement is visible. Type A and B lesions are predominate in unilateral engagement of arterial vessels, whereas C and D lesions are more frequent in bilateral disease. It is noteworthy that ABI is less than 0.5 at 100% of patients with lesions of type D in femoro popliteal segment. α = 0.02 - there is a statistically significant relationship. Dependence is average V2 = 0.374. 68.29% of the studied patients with ABI values below 0.5 have type C lesions. α = 0.01 - there is a statistically significant relationship. Dependence is poorly expressed V2 = 0.201. 47.72% of the studied patients with ABI values between 0.7-0.5 have type B lesions. α = 0.35 - we accept H0. 71.42% of the studied patients with ABI value above 0.7 have type A lesions. α = 0.741 - there is no statistically significant relationship.