The position of Iranian left-wing parties regarding the White Revolution project in 1963
Academic studies have not given adequate attention to the history of political parties and organizations in Iran, despite Iran being an important neighboring country with significant sensitivity and importance to various regions in the Arab world. Since the early 1960s, Iran has become entangled in significant political developments that have had a profound impact on its overall situation. It has witnessed important transformations, including the maturation of opposition political thought. This thought was able to move beyond theoretical ideological frameworks and engage in practical realities, opposing the authoritarian rule of the Pahlavi regime and foreign presence. The authorities attempted to establish party organizations loyal to them in order to limit the activities of opposition parties. However, these opposition parties were weak in the face of the dominance of the authorities and their security forces. Opposition to the Pahlavi family's rule was not a futile endeavor aimed solely at overthrowing their rule. It was a prelude to new leadership that the Iranian street perceived as having a higher and more noble position. The feeling of reassurance towards these leadership figures generated a desire for comprehensive change that encompassed all aspects of the existing state. The opposition was not characterized by a single ideological color. It consisted of various nationalist, secular, religious, materialistic communist, and Western liberal parties. However, the Islamic current dominated the Iranian political scene. In response, the authorities attempted to establish political parties loyal to them, known as the "power parties," in order to suppress public discontent. However, these power parties themselves contributed to the downfall of the regime due to their detachment from the Iranian street and the prevalence of administrative and financial corruption within their leadership ranks.