Pacemaker neurons exert control over neuronal circuit function by their intrinsic ability to generate rhythmic bursts of action potential. Recent work has identified rhythmic gut contractions in human, mice and hydra to be dependent on both neurons and the resident microbiota. However, little is known about the evolutionary origin of these neurons and their interaction with microbes. In this study, we identified and functionally characterized prototypical ANO/SCN/TRPM ion channel expressing pacemaker cells in the basal metazoan Hydra by using a combination of single-cell transcriptomics, immunochemistry, and functional experiments. Unexpectedly, these prototypical pacemaker neurons express a rich set of immune-related genes mediating their interaction with the microbial environment. Functional experiments validated a model of the evolutionary emergence of pacemaker cells as neurons using components of innate immunity to interact with the microbial environment and ion channels to generate rhythmic contractions.
Full count matrices for all the plates:
Full expression matrix after cell filtering:
Metadata with cluster assignment:
MD cascade simulation data for Li2TiO3 and Li4SiO4 and their irradiation resistance properties comparisons
We describe data that has been collected and analysed from the nutritional status of children (2-5 years) in the Tamale Metropolis, Tamale – Ghana.
Organosulfates measured by Ultra-High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry-2019JD032253R DATA
Contributors:Jason Braasch, Samantha Choukalas, Ivar Braten
Background: School-aged children are increasingly engaging with multiple conflicting texts to understand complex societal issues, however empirical research has not yet examined in what ways contextual factors affect detection of and memory for conflicts.
Methods: The current experiment manipulated contextual factors that included the vocabulary terms that authors of different texts used when describing the same concepts, and the order with which students accessed contradictory information.
Results: After controlling for general science knowledge, adolescent students displayed longer reading times when contradictory stances were presented in an alternating fashion than they did when texts were blocked by stance. When text presentation was alternating, students also remembered more conflicts when the texts used the same vocabulary terms than they did when the texts used different vocabulary terms (non-obvious synonyms). However, when adolescents read texts blocked by stance, they remembered a similar number of intertextual conflicts regardless of whether texts used the same or different vocabulary.
Conclusions: The findings suggest that different contextual factors can facilitate (but also undermine) propensities to notice and remember conflicts across texts. As such, the findings have important implications for theories of text comprehension and applications for adolescents’ everyday reading experiences.
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Calculated values for Cobalt ferrites (CoFe2O4) samples of pH = 7, 8 and 9.
Lattice parameter (a), Crystallite size (D), Dislocation Density and micro strain, (dβcosθ)2 and d2βcosθ for Williamson-Hall plot, Average values of Lattice Parameter, Volume of unit cell V (e-30), Hopping length, Ionic Radii, Avogadro's number, x-ray density Δx (gr/cm3), Calculation of Lattice Parameter, Volume of unit cell V (e-30), Hopping length, Ionic Radii, Avogadro's number, x-ray density Δx (gr/cm3), Texture Coefficient, Tc, Standard Deviation, Stalking fault coefficient, α, I/Io and Tc, LA and LB
Time series single cell RNA sequencing analysis of smooth muscle cell (SMC) to mesenchymal cell transition process in TGFβR2iSMC-Apoe-/- and Apoe-/- mice. Chromatin immunoprecipitation DNA sequencing was done to identify the potential binding sites of DNA-associated proteins in human aortic smooth muscle cells treated with TGFb or PBS.
Data Set for the experimenter 1 (Critical N application rates for tomato); Table S1: Tissue nutrient concentration of 5th leaf at vegetative stag (3 WAP) of tomato, Table S2: Shoot dry weight and tissue nutrient concentration at applied N rates in early reproductive stage (7WAP), Table S3: Tissue nutrient concentration at applied N rates in middle reproductive stage of tomato, Table S4: Tissue nutrient concentration of at applied N rates in late reproductive stage of tomato.
Data Set for the experimenter 2 (Effect of N application rate at the vegetative growth stage on the marketable yield of tomato); Table S5: Applied N-rates for each treatment at different stages of tomato in Exp.2, Table S6: Comparison of yield data of two different N-treatments of tomato.
The files contain the replication data and replication instructions (as STATA do-file) that replicate the results presented in the article:
Lujala, Päivi, and Christa Brunnschweiler and Ishmael Edjekumhene 2020. Transparent for whom? Dissemination of information on Ghana’s petroleum and mining revenue management. Journal of Development Studies.
The article is an open access article and you can access it through this link: https://doi.org/10.1080/00220388.2020.1746276
The dataset comes from a survey conducted in Ghana between June-August 2016. The purpose of the survey was to study people’s level of knowledge of and perceptions and attitudes towards a number of issues related to petroleum and mining revenue management and to understand how people inform themselves about such matters. The survey sample consists of 3526 adult (18 years and over) respondents, who were interviewed face-to-face. The survey was conducted in 120 of the 216 districts in Ghana at the time (currently Ghana has 260 districts).