A cognitive outlook on the relationship between loneliness and meaning in life: The mediating role of positive orientation and the moderating role of self-focused attention
The current study examined the mediating role of positive orientation (POS) and the moderating roles of rumination and reflection in the relationship between loneliness and meaning in life (MIL). A sample of 304 Polish participants aged 19–45 (M = 25.61, SD = 6.1) completed several measures: the De Jong Gierveld Loneliness Scale, the Positivity Scale, the Rumination–Reflection Questionnaire, and the Presence subscale of the Meaning in Life Questionnaire. The study revealed that POS partially mediated the relationship between loneliness and MIL. It also turned out that reflection weakened the effect of loneliness on MIL and strengthened the relationship between POS and MIL. The results are discussed in the light of the evolutionary theory of loneliness and the regulatory functions of reflection.