Importance of Atmospheric Transport on Methanesulfonic Acid (MSA) Concentrations in the Arctic Ocean during Summer under Global Warming
The total suspended particulate aerosol samples (TSP) were collected by CHINARE in 2010 (CHINARE 2010), 2012 (CHINARE 2012), 2014 (CHINARE 2014), and 2016 (CHINARE 2016) during the Arctic summer (July–September). MSA and other ions, including Na+ and Cl-, were identified via ion chromatography (IC; ICS2100) at the University of Science and Technology of China. MSA was measured via IC with an AG11 guard column, AS11 analytical column, and AERS 500 self-regenerating suppressor (4 mm), and Cl- in the samples was measured via IC with an AG19 guard column, AS19 analytical column, and AERS 500 self-regenerating suppressor (4 mm). Each test contained at least two reagent blanks, two field blanks, and one recovery blank. The recovery rates of all recovered samples with MSA and Cl- were between 90 and 110%. The typical analytical precision of the instrument is better than 10% of the relative standard deviation for all ions. Sea-air DMS flux data (FDMS, μmol/m2/d) with 8 d and 28-km resolutions were obtained from the fdms_gsm_W97 dataset (10.5281/zenodo.3243967) from Gali et al. (2019). Notably, these data are only available when the sea ice concentration is below 10%. However, in this study, the FDMS corresponding to the sample is the average of multiple points, so when the data is averaged, it is possible that the FDMS is available when ice-covered fraction (FRSEAICE) > 10%. The surface incoming shortwave flux (SWGDN, w/m2), 10-m northward wind (V10M, m/s), and FRSEAICE were obtained from the MERRA2 reanalysis data product (ftp.as.harvard.edu/gcgrid/data/ExtData/GEOS_2×2.5/MERRA2) with a horizontal resolution of 2° × 2.5° and hourly resolution. Data on the ozone volume mixing ratio (O3, ppbv) with a horizontal resolution of 1° × 1° and daily resolution were obtained from the AIRS project (2019), whereas those on NO2 (molecules/cm2) with a horizontal resolution of 0.25° × 0.25° and daily resolution were obtained from Nickolay et al. (2019). Both O3 and NO2 data were obtained from the Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC, https://disc.gsfc.nasa.gov).
National Natural Science Foundation of China